油彩中国画粗释

Rough explanation for Oil Painting and Chinese Painting

王椿淳2014-8-7
Share:

    油画传入中土已有五百年,但中国人真正全面开始画油画只有百余年时间。而把西洋绘画的材质工具引入中国画创作不是一件简单的事,抛开技术不谈,单单说视觉感受就已是一个挑战,何况还要克服内外种种观念上的阻力、承接持久悠远的中国绘画传统。

    Oil painting has been introduced into Chinese for 500 years old, but there are only over hundreds that the Chinese really started comprehensively to draw oil painting .Introducing Western painting materials into the traditional Chinese painting creations is not a simple thing, Except technology , visual perception is already a challenge, let alone to overcome internal and external resistance on various concepts, also undertake lasting distant traditional Chinese painting.

    对于油彩布本(纸本)山水花鸟画方面的探索尝试,从诸前贤讫今近一个世纪之久,但还未有大成。要在古人的基础上,造就用传统方法和材料、工具所难以达到的视觉效果,虽然很难,却并非不可能。使用油彩(但并非只用油画的画法)来创作中国画,重塑绘画性,重建造型性与空间性,弥补书法主体性于画面中的不足,超越明清以来的笔墨表现,与久远的晋唐宋元传统取得直接联系,同时保持强烈鲜明的当代性、跳出单纯摹古仿古,此路初看堪似绝路,实际也是新路。这一条路,有层层递进的三个关键环节:材料替代,画法取舍,画理承继。

    For exploring landscape painting of the paint cloth (printed), from the QianXian yet today for nearly a century, but still no tales. It is possible to achieve visual effect through making use of  traditional methods, materials and tools on the basis of ancient people in spite of difficult. Using greasepaint (but not only use oil painting brushwork) to create Chinese paintings, and reshape painterly, rebuild the formative and spatial, make up for the deficiency of calligraphy subjectivity in picture, beyond performance since Ming and Qing dynasty, and keep direct contact with the traditional of jin tang yuan, and maintain strong distinctive contemporary, jump out by imitating ancient archaize simply, which looks like a dead end at first sight, actually may be a new road. This way has three progressive progress of key link : material substitution, the choice of painting methods, painting idea succession.    

    用油彩来画中国画有不少的技术制约因素,介质的流动性与覆盖性存在一定的冲突,许多人就此认为此路不通;更有思想上的束缚、欣赏习惯和价值观念上的阻碍。同样是油彩施于画布、施于纸上,人们往往习惯性地认为,出来的一定是“油画”,更有甚者,以为这么做是对中国画的侮辱(有人认为纸上水墨已经成为中国画的特性之一,所以一旦改变了材料工具,就不再是中国画)。在艺术上是没有绝路的。前人没做成的,未必后人也不成。虽然对于已经看惯了水墨的人来说,材料的变化可能一时还不能使得自己的眼睛很好适应。相信随着时间推移,这一状况会得到改善。

    Many people think that the road is blocked on that there are quite a lot of technical factors using  paints to paint Chinese as the coverage and liquidity of media has certain conflict; and more barriers on thought of bondage, appreciate and values. The same is greasepaint done on the canvas and paper, people often think habitually, it must be "oil painting", what is more, some people think that it is an insult to traditional Chinese painting (some say the ink on paper has become one of the characteristics of Chinese painting, so once changed material tools, it is not Chinese painting any more ).  It is not blind alley in art. What the Predecessors didn't make, not necessarily future generations will not be. Although the change of material made oneself eyes to adjust it well to the people accustomed to watch the ink painting ,we Believe that the situation will improve over time.

材料替代

material substitution

    中国画要取得新的生命,材料工具的变化也许会带来新的希望。中国画在漫长岁月里积累起来的图像资源,无疑具有与西方不同的特点;虽然它与材料工具的关系还有很大的争议,而材料工具总是基础性的。从基础的地方入手,必然引发一些根本性的变革,例如中国画早先的由绢入纸(由彩入墨)。绘画材料与工具的变化,导致绘画方法(技法)的变化、视觉效果的变化、欣赏口味的变化,甚至于导致其他方面的变化或分化瓦解,---或者说,是别的因素引发了绘画材料工具的变化,那就是,经由上百年的接触和使用,国人对油彩及相关工具的特性已经充分熟悉。利用油彩与水墨不同的介质特性进行中国画创作是一件有价值的事。但如果只是以油彩来模仿笔墨效果,则意义不大。

    The change of the material tool may bring new hope if Chinese paintings want to get the new life. Chinese paintings had accumulated image resources in the long years , undoubtedly have different characteristics compared to the west; Although the relationship have a lot of controversy between such image resources and material tool, materials tools are always basic. Starting from the basis, some fundamental change will be caused , for example, traditional Chinese painting earlier was done by the silk into the paper in the earlier time (by color into the ink). The changes of painting materials and tools lead to changes of painting method (techniques), visual effects, and appreciation taste, even lead to other changes or disintegration,----or other factors caused the change of painting materials tools, that is, Chinese has been fully familiar with properties of oil painting and related tools through hundreds of years of contact and use . It is a valuable thing to create Chinese paintings by making Use of greasepaint and ink's different medium characteristics. But it is a low-key affair only to imitate ink using greasepaint.

    材料特性的问题确实十分重要,全面地了解并掌握油彩及其用刀笔在画布上赋形时的一些特性,是必需的。使用这些与以往不同的材料工具来创作中国画时,哪些特性加以发挥和有效运用最为适合,这一问题更需要注意。

    Material characteristics' problem is really very important. It is necessary that fully understand and master some of the characteristic greasepaint and knife shaped on the canvas.When Using these different materials tools different from the past to create Chinese Painting, which character is more suitable to play and effective use , which needs more attention.

    当采用上述材料工具来画中国画的时候,就实实在在的感到必须“消解”掉笔墨才行。油彩不比水墨,流动性差,因此,自然而然得弱化书写性,或许也难达到水墨渲淡烘染渗化的效果从而满足原有欣赏口味。不过,油彩带来全新的画面质感、全新的形式建构,在突破平面、开放造型和恢复久已缺失的空间纵深上极具特效,虽然这之间的平衡仍然值得注意。其中的一个风险是(由于出色地发挥了油彩品质的、基于西方彩色理论的)色彩在画面上的组织形态可能会对中国画的形式构成造成损害。材料与题材的关系、材质与出彩点的关系、不同材料同一题材的效果对比、材料变化与中国画特有形式的保有关系、材料特性与中国画画面组织方式的关系,等等,各方面可探索的空间极其广阔。

    When using the above materials tools to paint Chinese, you feel truly the ink must be broken off . The greasepaint has poor liquidity compared to ink, therefore, naturally have to weakening writing, and perhaps also difficult to achieve the effect the ink rendered to satisfy the original appreciation taste. However, refresh pictures quality and brand-new construction form greasepaint brought have extremely special effects on breaking plane, opening modelling and restoring the missing already a long time of space depth, although the balance between them still worthy of noting. Among them, one of the risk is (due to play well with paint quality, based on the theory of western color) that color in picture form of organization may damage the form of traditional Chinese painting. we can explore the extremely broad space, for example,the relationship between materials and subject matter, the relationship between the material quality and give prize point, the effect comparison between the same topic of the different materials, the special relations between material change and effect of Chinese painting's special form, the relationship between the material properties and the organization form of Chinese painting, and so on.

画法取舍

Choice of painting methods

    中国山水花鸟画经过一代代中国画家的努力,形成了特定的图式或形式规范,并不只限于构图布局、山水丘壑的位置经营、花花草草的生意。也涉及到材料方面的整体协同,比如说,以往传统中国画中至少有二个以上大色系的安排,即使是“单色的”纯水墨画,着笔处与未着笔之材质底色仍然构成二个大色系的安排;浅绎山水,则又增加了浅绎这一大色系,如此不一而足。在使用油彩作画时,这些本不是问题的问题就转化成了新的需要注意和把握的节点。

    After effort a generation of Chinese painters,Chinese landscape painting has formed the specific schema or form standard, not limited to composition layout, the position management of the landscape QiuHe and the business of flowers and plants, also relates to the overall coordination of the materials, for example, a past traditional Chinese painting had two or more big color fastens arrangement at least, even if is "single" pure ink and wash painting ,material impression of in pen and not in pen still constitutes two large color fastens arrangement; and shallow and overseas landscape increases the color of the shallow overseas, and so on. When using greasepaint to paint, these problems that originally is not a problem are transformed into a new key point needed to pay attention to and master.

    西方古典的和现代主义的以及后现代主义的油画绘画技术、创作法则,如果直接运用于中国画的创作可能会形成一系列问题。中国画的创作,需要从形式构成上遵循山水花鸟画之形式的一般规范。当然其色彩关系可以运用、也可以不运用西方绘画的色彩原理。依托或不依托客观母题进行创作,单纯诗意式的“光溜溜”画面或张扬个性的表现式创作,层层罩染或平涂、厚涂,凡此种种,都可以尝试,总之以视觉和谐为本。

    If the painting technology and creation law of oil painting of Western classical and modern socialist and Postmodernism directly be used in the creation of Chinese painting, a series of problems may be formed. The creation of Chinese painting need abide by the general standard related to the from of landscape painting on the constitution form. Of course the color relations can use, also can not use color principle of western painting . Relying on or not rely on objective motif to make creation and pure poetry type "naked" picture or the performance creation of making public personality, layer upon layer mask or flat besmear, subtle impasto , all of which can try to, anyhow, visual harmonious first.必须充分注意到由于介质特性差异所导致原有相关画法的冲突。就我个人经验而言,直接全面运用油画画法于中国画的创作会遇到许多困难,方法应当进行重新调整与整合。油彩布本的中国画创作存在一定的危险:赋予山石花鸟以过度的体量感,营造过于逼真的空间视错觉,在保持图象的山水花鸟画特性的同时又消解其笔墨情趣,有可能导致最终偏离了一种常规意义上的创新---所创作出的不再是中国山水画和花鸟画,却变成了一幅常规意义上的油画作品或类似于“当代艺术”那样的作品---这中间的尺度得在实践中拿捏。通常由于油彩的流动性不足,则勾勒皴晕染点的传统创作流程可基本放弃---因为即使采用了勾皴染等技法,可出来的还是“西画”之观感效果,这样的教训很多。如果用冷榨油加以稀释,则也可得与纸绢上水墨等效,只是此时不宜用油画笔而用毛笔则佳。加大空间感和体量感,但仍须防止透视学上的自然主义倾向、以及明暗处理上特别是光线上的传统油画味道;形式要件的选择与安排,需保持足够的中国式韵律韵致;基于油彩材质的中国画,若要避免与传统青绿样式的雷同视觉感受,则要求在一般绘画形式上更加深入。至于石法,树法,水法,云法等的重新程式化,可以一个一个突破,而整体的改观还需要整合、统局。

    We must fully noticed that related conflicts of painting methods caused by the difference of Medium characteristics.As far as my experience goes,it will be suffered to many difficult to comprehensive use directly painting methods of oil painting into the creation of the Chinese painting, So, the painting method should be readjusted and integrated.The Chinese Painting creation of the paint cloth has certain risk: give flowers and birds with excessive dimension sense, build too lifelike space optical illusion, and maintain the landscape painting characters of the image at the same time as the digestion its characteristics and interest, may lead finally to deviate from a conventional meaning of innovation----What created is not Chinese landscape painting and flower and bird painting,but a conventional meaning oil painting or similar to the works of "contemporary art"---which need to hold the scale in practice.Generally speaking,due to the poor liquidity of greasepaint,the traditional creation process of painting 皴晕染点can be given up basically---Because even if using the technique of 勾皴染 and so on ,we still get the perception effect of "picture",such lessons have a lot. If diluted with cold press, the equivalent effect can be also available with the ink on paper silk equivalent, only here, using oil paint will get better effect than writing brush. Increase spaciousness and dimension sense, but still must prevent perspective's the natural tendency , and the taste of traditional oil painting on chiaroscuro especially light; The selection and arrangement of form need to keep enough Chinese rhythm charm; Chinese painting based on the paint material, if we want to avoid similar visual experience with traditional green style, in general, call for more in-depth painting form. As for stylizing of stone method, tree method, water method, clouds method can be broken one by one, and the whole change also need to integration.

    因有异于传统创作材料工具,适配的画法需要在不断的探索中觅得并固定下来。无论古今中外,方法的自我成熟都有一个过程,前人也是这么过来的。

    Because of different from traditional creation material tools, applicable painting method needs to find out and fix down in the continuous exploration. No matter of ancient and modern,Chinaand foreign countries, method's mature need a process, so is predecessors.

画理承继

painting idea succession

    画之“理”,各有所宗。作为个体的画家,遵循各自的天赋禀异,自然会作出相应选择。需要注意判别的是东西方绘画一般画理以及古今时代差别这样一些事项,例如如果把光影明暗过度引入中国画,会失去中国山水花鸟独有的味道,这是探索“融合”的人们当中的那些试图把油画技法和元素机械地运用于中国画而最后出来的画面却并不“象”中国画的一个重要原因。

    The "idea" of painting, each have Pope. As individual painter, follow their different talent, can make corresponding choice. Need to pay attention to recognize such items that the general painting idea of eastern and Western painting and the difference of ancient and modern, for example, if introducing light and shadow transition of the light into Chinese painting, the Chinese painting will lose unique taste of Chinese landscape, flower and bird. This is an important reason that among those people exploring the "convergence" who try to put the oil painting skill and element mechanically into Chinese paintings, but the final picture is unlike Chinese painting.

    又例如中国画与西洋绘画的画面组织方式有区别。大致上,西洋绘画的底子是要被覆盖的,中国画的“底子”是画面的组成部分---未着笔墨的“空白”。又例如进入现代社会尤其是网络时代,人与图之间的观赏距离在拉大,我们视觉的感受与古人有很大不同,欣赏口味发生了变化。

    For example,the organized way of Chinese paintings and western painting pictures is different. In general, a bottom of western painting is to be covered, whereas the bottom of Chinese painting is part of the picture- "blank".  Another example is that viewing distance between people is widening, our visual feelings is very different from ancients, appreciation taste changes a lot in modern society especially network times.

    由于中国画自身的超现代性,因而并不存在使得山水花鸟画“变得更富有现代感”这样的特别任务,而只有趣味的持续延展与转换增益。材料替代之后,经由画法的变换,必然地消解了笔墨、降低了线条的地位作用,则如何仍得(称?)为中国画?主要还得从形式建构上探寻消息。

    Because of the extra-modernity of Chinese painting, it has not such a special assignment that make landscape painting become more contemporary, but only for continuous extension and conversion gain of fun. After substitute materials, and through drawing transform, Chinese painting inevitably eliminates the ink, and reduce line position and effects, such, how to still call for Chinese paintings? Main explore information from construction form.

    至为重要的,是任何材料工具情形下的中国画所不得不面对的、也是传统上一直以来所强调的画品与画格。高端中国山水花鸟绘画,呈现出文字语言无法呈现的一种存在,关乎所绘之景象、所成之图像、所运之笔墨,更关乎材质、画面共同组成的效果。在不断体悟古代大师们曾经付出的种种努力的过程中加深对传统中国绘画的认识和理解,才能抛开狭隘保守的各种固有成见,以宽广的心胸和视野、精微的实践和验证,延续并重新展现中国画的开放和包容。

    Most important is the painting article and picture frame Chinese painting in the case of any material tool had to faced, and had been stressed traditionally. High-end China landscape painting, showing a kind of presence written language can't present, for the image painted, image formed, the ink used, the more for material, image composed of effect. We will deepen our understanding to Chinese drawing in the processing of understanding constantly ancients had made effects, we can put aside all kind of the narrow conservative inherent stereotypes, continue and reshow the open and inclusive of traditional Chinese painting with broad mind and vision, subtle practice and verification,

338 views
Share:

Comments

    Comment, "Ctrl + Enter" to send

    王椿淳's stories